Easily avoid integrity risks that result from many different sources.
Vibration is a significant factor contributing to reliability and integrity problems. For example, a vibration-induced piping failure will release gas or liquid that can cause a fire or explosion – an extreme personnel safety issue, production shut-down and multi-million dollar environmental risk.
Many different sources of vibration contribute to this integrity risk, including transient or steady-state fluid flow, pulsations, and mechanical excitations.
Companies understand the importance of mitigating vibration and associated piping failures. They know it involves a small upfront investment by hiring vibration/dynamic design engineers to ensure that vibration and dynamic issues are considered in the design phase. This effort quickly pays off, especially compared to the costs involved in field modifications.
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Vibration risks affect different areas of a production facility. An integrated approach is needed because different engineering disciplines are involved in the solution (piping/static engineers, structural engineers, rotating engineers, maintenance and reliability/integrity teams). An overview of this approach is given in the table below and more detail is found in the following paragraphs.
ENGINEERING REQUIREMENTS (VIBRATION & DYNAMICS ISSUES)
|Vibration/Dynamic Design Review: Identify high-risk areas and define requirements of vibration/dynamic engineering analysis.|
Compressor/Pump Vibration Assessment
Evaluate piping layout, pulsation control, surge control, mechanical and skid dynamics, torsional or lateral stress, small-bore connections, and other vibration /stress factors. Scope depends on the machine size and application.
Piping Vibration Assessment
Evaluate integrity risks in main piping and small-bore connections due to pulsations, flow-induced vibration, acoustic-induced vibration, transients or water hammer, shell modes, and piping mechanical response.
Structural or Foundation Dynamic Assessment
|Operations and Maintenance||
Site Vibration Requirements
During the planning stage (i.e., Front End Engineering & Design, or FEED) owners or their Engineering Consultants contact Wood Group's vibration, dynamics & noise service line to provide recommendations for vibration related requirements. This can include machinery orientation and initial module layout, application advice, vibration requirements and scope, timing of critical path activities, and other initial design considerations.
Compressor/Pump Vibration Assessment Once the project moves into the Detailed Design stage, the larger compressors and pumps will require specialized vibration design analysis (pulsation, mechanical resonance, compressor surge analysis, water hammer, etc.). The scope of work is dependent on the type of machine, size, and application. The recommended modifications are coordinated with the designated machinery packager and the Engineering Consultant. Early involvement of the vibration consultant enables time for finalizing coupling design, pulsation control vessel sizing, surge control components, pipe support locations and designs, skid design and dynamics, or other critical activities.
Piping Vibration Assessment The piping system faces many vibration related risks – both in the main piping and with small-bore connections. The vibration or dynamic assessment can employ the methodology proposed in the Energy Institute Guideline (2008) to evaluate excitation sources including pulsations, mechanical resonance, acoustic-induced vibration, flow-induced vibration, turbulent flow, water hammer, cavitation, etc. High risk areas (high likelihood of failure) require advanced studies (or investigation), software and analytical tools, and sound field experience in piping vibration to ensure practical recommendations.
Structural or Foundation Dynamic Assessment A Dynamic Foundation or Structural Assessment may be required, especially when reciprocating equipment, engines, and other dynamic loads are employed. These engineering studies are directly coordinated with the vibration/dynamic design of the compressor or pump package (Compressor/Pump Vibration Assessment above).
|Examples where an integrated approach is used to mitigate vibration risks in the piping system, compressor and pump skids, offshore & onshore foundations, and elevated structural supports.|
This cross-functional approach avoids issues “falling through the cracks” and averts multi-million dollar expenses due to piping fatigue failure and machinery downtime.
Wood Group’s engineering solutions provide a very high payback for owners. The company is the trusted advisor for many of the world’s largest petroleum-based companies.